The turnover from service activities increased at the annual1) and at the monthly2) level in August 2022.
The total seasonally and working-day adjusted turnover from service activities realised in August 2022 increased by 2.0%, as compared to July 2022
The highest increase in the turnover was recorded in the following activities: Other professional, scientific and technical activities (of 9.2%), Publishing activities (of 7.2%) and Travel agency, tour operator reservation services and related activities (of 4.3%).
The highest decrease in the turnover was recorded in the following activities: Rental and leasing activities (of 12.4%), Management consultancy activities (of 11.3%) and Accommodation (of 4.6%).
The total working-day adjusted turnover from service activities realised in August 2022 increased by 18.8%, as compared to August 2021
The highest increase in the turnover was recorded in the following activities: Office administrative, office support and other business support activities (of 55.1%), Water transport (of 46.4%) and Travel agency, tour operator reservation services and related activities (of 37.7%).
A decrease in turnover was generated only in one service activity: Programming and broadcasting activities (of 2.1%).
Observing the first eight months, the working-day adjusted turnover from service activities increased by 26.2% compared to the same period of the previous year.
1) Data compared to those of the same month of the previous year (the so-called working-day adjusted data).
2) Data compared to those of the previous month (the so-called seasonally and working-day adjusted data).
1 TURNOVER INDICES, BY MAIN ACTIVITIES OF BUSINESS ENTITIES
1) See Notes on Methodology, Presentation of indices.
The time series of the turnover indices of service activities are published on the dissemination site of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics https://podaci.dzs.hr/en/ in the STS Database (Short-Term Business Statistics Database) in the area Services under the headings Turnover Indices of Service Activities − monthly data, on the link https://stsbaza.dzs.hr/en/Report?dt=9 and within Statistics in Line under the title Economy – Basic Indicators.
Precise dissemination dates are listed in the Calendar of Statistical Data Issues for 2022, which is available on the web site of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics: https://podaci.dzs.hr/en/.
A part of the data in this First Release, particularly relating to monthly indices on the 2015 base, working-day adjusted, seasonally and working-day adjusted and unadjusted are regularly submitted on the monthly basis to the Eurostat and are available on the Eurostat’s web site http//ec.europa.eu/eurostat, together with the indicators of all EU Member States they are comparable to.
Sources and methods of data collection
The data in this First Release are based on the Monthly Report on Service Activities (USL-M form) and administrative data sources (databases of value added tax reports of the Tax Administration), except data on retail trade activities (division G 47), which were calculated on the basis of the Monthly Report on Retail Trade (TRG-1 form).
The data are collected via a web-based application (the so-called CAWI). The reporting units enter data directly into the USL-M form, which is available on the dissemination site of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics https://podaci.dzs.hr/hr/obrasci/trgovina-i-ostale-usluge/. The period for data collection ranges each month, as a rule, between the 1st and the 25th day in a month for the previous reference month data.
The methodology for this survey is based on the Council Regulation (EC) No. 1165/98 (Annex D) concerning short-term statistics and its amendments, Regulation (EU) No. 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2019 on European business statistics, repealing 10 legal acts in the field of business statistics, and the Commission Regulation (EU) No. 2020/1197.
This survey is conducted on the basis of the Official Statistics Act (NN, No. 25/20).
The survey is mainly aimed at measuring turnover changes in service activities.
Coverage and comparability
The survey is carried out by using the sampling method.
The sample is selected once a year. It is based on size and on annual turnover of business entities for the previous year.
All medium-sized and large enterprises (sizes 5, 6 and 7) are taken over from the Statistical Business Register. Units marked in the Register as small ones are also included if they exceed the determined threshold according to the turnover.
A subset of units that will be included into the regular survey (USL-M form) is selected from all units selected in the sample. A selection criterion has been determined according to a particular turnover threshold, which has to be covered by those units.
The total sample consists of about 12 000 units, of which about 800 are included in the regular Monthly Report on Service Activities (USL-M form).
The main activity is defined for each business entity according to the NKD 2007. (NN, Nos 58/07 and 123/08).
The criterion for determining the size of a business entity is the number of persons in employment. Business entities of size 1 are those employing 0 – 4 persons, of size 2 those employing 5 – 9 persons, of size 3 those employing 10 – 19 persons, of size 4 those employing 20 – 49 persons, of size 5 those employing 50 – 99 persons, of size 6 those employing 100 – 249 persons and of size 7 those employing 250 and more persons.
Observation units in the Monthly Report on Service Activities (USL-M form) are business entities that are registered by their main activity in the following sections of the NKD 2007. :
|G||Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (except division 47),|
|H||Transportation and storage,|
|I||Accommodation and food service activities,|
|J||Information and communication,|
|L||Real estate activities,|
|M||Professional, scientific and technical activities (except group 70.1 and divisions 72 and 75)|
|N||Administrative and support service activities.|
Since January 2022, the turnover indices for service activities M 69 Legal and accounting activities and M 702 Management consultancy activities have been published separately, which were published in aggregate form as M 69+702 until December 2021. Furthermore, since January 2022, in accordance with Regulation (EU) No. 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2019 on European business statistics, the total turnover of services (G ‒- N) has covered the following activities: L 68 Real estate activities, N 77 Rental and leasing activities and N 81 Services to buildings and landscape activities.
The presentation and interpretation of indices in this First Release has been entirely harmonised with Eurostat´s requirements for the presentation of short-term business indicators and with the Council Regulation (EC) No. 1165/98 on short-term statistics as well as its amendments.
Seasonal and working-day adjustment method
Since 2016, in the process of seasonal adjustment the software package JDemetra+ and X13 ARIMA method has been used. This process identifies and assesses seasonal and working-day effects in time series by using statistical models and procedures.
The revision of previously published seasonally and working-day adjusted indices is due to several causes. The most common cause is a change in estimated parameters of existing statistical models while conducting new estimates, which occurs due to new observations. Other causes are changes in source data or in applied statistical models.
Calendar effects have significant impact on time series movement, the most common of which are the effect of moving holidays, the effect of the leap year and the effect of working days.
Seasonally and working-day adjusted indices
The seasonally and working-day adjusted indices imply that the gross indices are adjusted for seasonal and working-day effects. Indices adjusted in that way and associated rates of change in two consecutive observations are used to compare data with data from the previous month.
Working-day adjusted indices
Working-day adjusted indices imply that the gross indices are adjusted only for calendar effects. Indices adjusted in that way and associated inter-annual rates of change are used to compare data with data from the same month of the previous year.
Gross, unadjusted indices
This term is used to indicate that indices are not adjusted for seasonal and working-day effects. Gross, unadjusted indices are published, but they are not commented in particular.
Indices are presented as gross, non-deflated indices, that is, the price change effect is not excluded from them.
Turnover (business revenue) is the value of all goods sold and services provided on the market during the reference period, irrespective of whether they are paid for or not. Value added tax is excluded.
Business entities on the Monthly Report on Service Activities report their total turnover (business revenue) generated from their main as well as from their secondary activities.
The turnover indices calculated from the value added tax databases have been obtained from the data on total deliveries (both taxable and non-taxable ones). Deliveries recorded in the value added tax databases may differ from the definition of turnover applied in statistical surveys, which affects the comparability of data.
|CAWI||computer-assisted web interview|
|Eurostat||Statistical Office of the European Communities|
|NKD 2007.||National Classification of Activities, 2007 version|
|NN||Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia|
|z||data are not published for confidentiality reasons|
The survey whose data are published in this First Release has been conducted with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
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Milenka Primorac Čačić, Director of Business Statistics Directorate
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Prepared by: Josipa Kalčić Ivanić and Maja Dozet
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