First Release

Year: LIX.
Zagreb, 25 March 2022
ZTI-2022-2-4

ISSN 1334-0557

PATENTS, 2021

In 2021, the number of patent applications submitted to the State Intellectual Property Office (hereinafter referred to as: SIPO) amounted to 88, of which 77 were filed by resident and 11 by non-resident applicants. Out of the total residents, 68.8% were submitted by natural persons, and 31.2% by legal entities, while, concerning the non-resident applicants, natural persons submitted 72.7% and legal entities 27.3% of applications.

The most applications related to mechanical engineering

As regards the fields of technology, the highest share of patent applications in 2021 is related to Mechanical engineering (37.0%) and Chemistry (30.1%), while the lowest number related to Instruments (9.2%).

The International Patent Classification (hereinafter referred to as: IPC) provides the identification of the technology base of patents as well as the sector in which they will probably be applied. According to the IPC codes, the highest share of patent applications in 2021 were recorded in section B Performing operations; transporting (28.4%) and the lowest one in section D Textiles; paper (1.2%).

In 2021, the total number of patents granted in the national procedure amounted to 58. Out of that number, there were 51 patents of resident and 7 of non-resident applicants. Out of the total number of patents granted in the national procedure, 66.7% were invented by natural persons and 33.3% by legal entities. Concerning the non-resident applicants, 85.7% of patents granted were invented by legal entities and 14.3% by natural persons.

The most granted patents were related to mechanical engineering

The highest share of granted patents in 2021 according to the field of technology was related to Mechanical engineering (35.8%), followed by Instruments (17.5%) and Chemistry (17.5%), while the lowest one was related to Electrical engineering (13.1%).

According to the IPC codes, the highest share of granted patents in 2021 was related to section A Human necessities (25.9%). The lowest share was related to section C Chemistry; metallurgy (3.4%), while there were no granted patents in section D Textiles; paper.

In 2021, there were 12 183 valid patents in the Republic of Croatia.

Two thirds of patent applications and more than three quarters of granted patents referred to resident applicants from Adriatic Croatia and the City of Zagreb

In 2021, out of the total number of patent applications of resident applicants, 33.8% were filed by applicants from Adriatic Croatia and 32.5% by applicants from the City of Zagreb.

Concerning granted patents in 2021, 39.2% of applicants came from Adriatic Croatia and 37.3 % from the City of Zagreb.

G-1. PATENT APPLICATIONS IN NATIONAL PROCEDURE, ACCORDING TO IPC CODES, 2021

G-2. PATENTS GRANTED IN NATIONAL PROCEDURE, ACCORDING TO IPC CODES, 2021

1 PATENT APPLICATIONS IN NATIONAL PROCEDURE, 2017 – 2021

    2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Total 159 136 211 129 88
Applications filed by resident applicants 148 121 195 117 77
Natural persons 122 102 137 77 53
Legal entities 26 19 57 40 24
Applications filed by non-resident applicants 11 15 16 12 11
Natural persons 3 9 10 9 8
Legal entities 8 6 6 3 3
By field of technology1)          
Electrical engineering 31 39 54 27 27
Instruments 16 24 59 33 16
Chemistry 85 61 78 57 52
Mechanical engineering 104 80 134 74 64
Other fields 55 46 76 46 14
By IPC code          
A Human necessities 46 35 58 37 11
B Performing operations, transporting 29 24 43 34 25
C Chemistry, metallurgy 4 6 13 7 5
D Textiles, paper - - 1 - 1
E Fixed constructions 16 15 21 9 8
F Mechanical engineering, lighting, heating, weapons, blasting 28 28 27 14 12
G Physics 13 14 21 16 12
H Electricity 14 10 24 10 9
Unknown 9 4 3 2 5

1) This is in accordance with the WIPO International Patent Classification concordance table. The sum of patents by fields of technology may be higher than the total number of patents because more than one IPC code may be assigned to a single patent.

G-3. PATENT APPLICATIONS OF RESIDENT APPLICANTS IN NATIONAL PROCEDURE, AT HR_NUTS 2021 – HR NUTS 21), 2017 – 2021

1) The data in the graph are recalculated for the whole time series according to HR_NUTS 2021. – HR NUTS 2 (NN, No. 125/19).

G-4. GRANTED PATENTS OF RESIDENT APPLICANTS IN NATIONAL PROCEDURE, AT HR_NUTS 2021 – HR NUTS 21), 2017 – 2021

1) The data in the graph are recalculated for the whole time series according to HR_NUTS 2021. – HR NUTS 2 (NN, No. 125/19).

2 PATENTS GRANTED IN NATIONAL PROCEDURE, 2017 – 2021

    2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Total 86 71 83 67 58
Resident applicants 65 57 66 56 51
Natural persons 52 48 51 45 34
Legal entities 13 9 15 11 17
Non-resident applicants 21 14 17 11 7
Natural persons 4 - 2 1 1
Legal entities 17 14 15 10 6
By field of technology1)          
Electrical engineering 12 10 18 15 18
Instruments 14 10 10 9 24
Chemistry 110 84 145 85 24
Mechanical engineering 62 48 40 56 49
Other fields 33 25 43 32 22
By IPC code          
A Human necessities 32 21 24 21 15
B Performing operations, transporting  18 13 16 10 13
C Chemistry, metallurgy 7 5 10 5 2
D Textiles, paper - - 2 - -
E Fixed constructions 8 9 8 11 3
F Mechanical engineering, lighting, heating, weapons, blasting 8 10 8 11 12
G Physics 9 9 8 4 5
H Electricity 3 4 7 5 8
Unknown 1 1 - - -

1) This is in accordance with the WIPO International Patent Classification concordance table. The sum of patents by fields of technology may be higher than the total number of patents because more than one IPC code may be assigned to a single patent.

3 VALID PATENTS IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA, 2017 – 2021

    2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Total 8.201 9.260 10.365 11.335 12.183
Patents1) 7.845 8.945 10.060 11.041 11.873
Consensual patents 356 315 305 294 283
Utility model - - - - 27

1) Including European patents validated in the Republic of Croatia.

NOTES ON METHODOLOGY

Data sources

The data are the result of the processing of data taken over from SIPO. It is a state administration body with responsibilities in the field of the protection of intellectual property rights. SIPO carries out procedures for granting industrial property rights (patents, trademarks, industrial designs, geographical indications and designations of origin, topographies of semiconductor products) and performs the accompanying professional and legislative activity.

The data have been compiled according to the defined set of tables and processed by applying the required methodology.

Objectives of the survey and coverage

The methodological basis for the implementation of the survey is the internationally acknowledged standard, which was set up and published in the OECD Patent Statistics Manual.

The patent statistics provide information on the success of the research, development and innovation activity in selected fields of technology. The number of patents is one of the measures of the inventive activity of a country that, in addition, displays the capacity to exploit the knowledge and translate it into potential economic gains. The International Patent Classification (IPC) enables the classification of patent applications and granted patents into the selected fields of technology. The patents are classified, according to the technical subject matter of the invention, into respective classes or subclasses. The Classification includes eight fields of technology (marked with letters A to H), broken down into subfields further divided into classes and subclasses.

The data presented in this First Release encompasses patent applications submitted to SIPO and patents granted by SIPO in the national.

The data are presented at the level of the Republic of Croatia, while G3 and G4 graphs present data for 5-year time series at the HR_NUTS 2021. – HR NUTS 2 level, according to the new National Classification of Statistical Regions (HR_NUTS 2021.; NN, No. 125/19).

Definitions and explanations

The definitions covering the patent statistics area are based on the international methodology – the OECD Patent Statistics Manual 2009, issued by OECD, Paris, 2009.

A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention that offers a new technical solution to a problem. It is granted for inventions related to a product, procedure or application. The patent provides the exclusive right to the owner to make, use, distribute or sell the invention protected by the patent during a limited, generally 20 years from the filing date of the application. On expiration of this time, the patent is made a public good, available for public use.

The patent does not protect an abstract concept but an actual technical solution to a problem. The basic conditions for every invention that have to be fulfilled for granting of the patent are that it is new, that it involves an inventive step and that it is eligible for industrial application (that is, practical industrial applicability).

Patents are a territorial right, which means that they are valid only in the territory of a country where they were granted. Patents are granted by an authorised body, on the basis of the examination of the patent application that describes the invention. The authorised body in the Republic of Croatia is SIPO.

The patent granting procedure is instituted by filing the patent application and carried out in line with the Patent Act and Patent Regulations. It consists of two main phases, the formal examination of the text of the application prior to its publication in the SIPO official gazette and the examination after the publication. The procedure may result in the grant of a patent for a proposed invention, provided that the prescribed requirements are complied with, or in the refusal of a request for the grant of a patent, if such requirements are not complied with.

The patent applications are for the purpose of this First Release counted in a year when they were submitted to the SIPO, while the granted applications are counted in a year when they were granted by the SIPO.

Consensual patent is a special form of the patent protection in the Republic of Croatia. Its main characteristic is that it is granted without a substantive examination of the patent application, that is, on the basis of the public consensus, if no opposition to the grant is filed. The term of the consensual patent is no more than ten years.

Utility model is a form of invention protection that is registered without a substantive examination procedure of the patentability condition. The utility model can only protect products that do not belong in the field of biotechnology and that are not chemical or pharmaceutical substances. In addition, inventions whose commercial exploitation would be contrary to public policy or morality cannot be protected. Utility model lasts for 10 years, counting from the date of filing the application.

The process of registering a utility model is faster, cheaper and more suitable for simpler inventions as well as for natural persons and small and medium-sized enterprises, as compared to the procedure of granting a patent.

The definitions and explanations have been taken over from the web site of SIPO www.dziv.hr, where more information is available.

 

Abbreviations  
   
HR_NUTS 2021. – HR NUTS 2 National Classification of Statistical Regions, 2021 version – 2nd level statistical regions
NN Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization

 

Symbols  
   
no occurrence

 

Published by the Croatian Bureau of Statistics, Zagreb, Ilica 3, P. O. B. 80.
Phone: (+385 1) 48 06 111

Press corner: press@dzs.hr

Persons responsible:
Milenka Primorac Čačić, Director of Business Statistics Directorate
Lidija Brković, Director General

Prepared by:
Matija Škegro Vdović and Vesna Furjan


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