First Release

Year: LVIII.
Zagreb, 29 October 2021
ZTI-2021-2-1

ISSN 1334-0557

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, 2020

 

The share of research and development (R&D) expenditures in GDP in 2020 was 1.27%

In 2020, a total of 4.7 billion kuna was spent on R&D activity in the Republic of Croatia, which was an increase of 6.0% compared to the previous year. Of the total funds intended for R&D, the largest amount of funds was spent in the business enterprise sector, i.e. 47.9%. It was followed by higher education with 32.2%, while the smallest amount of funds was spent in the government and private non-profit sector, i.e. 19.9%.

The largest share of expenditure on R&D was accounted for by labour costs, 64.4%. Other current costs accounted for 24.2% of total expenditure, while capital expenditure accounted for only 11.4%.

Observing the sources of funds for R&D for total sectors, the largest amount was funded by units with internal funds, 41.2%, followed by the central and local government with 33.8%. A detailed analysis by sectors shows that enterprises mostly finance R&D with internal funds (72.7%), while the government and private non-profit sector (63.6%) and higher education (62.0%) are mostly financed by the central and local government.

The total R&D personnel in 2020 amounted to 25 217, which was 5.7% more than in the previous year. Of the total R&D personnel, 12 553 (49.8%) were women.

The employees of units performing the R&D were mostly engaged in the R&D activity, 94.0% of them, while 6.0% of the total R&D personnel were hired under contractual agreement or author’s contract. The share of researchers in the total R&D personnel was 63.6% (out of which 49.0% were women). Among the researchers, there were 61.4% of doctors of science (the share of women among the researchers with a doctoral degree was 50.6%).

The R&D work may be the employees’ main activity or their additional activity in part-time employment. In order to present actual engagement of R&D employees, a full-time equivalent (FTE) is used in line with the standards of international statistics. The FTE is considered a main indicator of R&D personnel for the purpose of international comparison.

Expressed as a full-time equivalent, there were a total of 15 517.0 person-years employed in R&D in 2020 (i.e. persons in full-time employment in R&D), out of which 48.3% were women. There were 9 112.5 researchers expressed as FTE.

Regarding the sectoral distribution, 293 out of 445 observation units belonged to the business enterprise sector, 60 to the government and private non-profit sector and 92 to the higher education.

1. MAIN R&D INDICATORS, 2020

    Gross
domestic expenditure,
thousand kuna
Total R&D personnel (headcount) Of that Total R&D personnel (FTE) Of that Number
of
performing units
Women Researchers Doctors of science Women Researchers Doctors of science
Sectors − total 4 723 461  25 217  12 553  16 027  10 097 15.517,0 7.496,7 9.112,5 5.198,3   445
Business enterprise sector 2 261 568  7 067  2 366  2 685   298 5.764,4 2.007,2 2.244,7 240,5   293
Government and private non-profit sector  941 940  4 826  2 870  3 039  2 488 3.568,7 2.150,1 2.091,6 1.755,7   60
Higher education  1 519 953  13 324  7 317  10 303  7 311 6.183,9 3.339,4 4.776,2 3.202,1   92

2. GROSS DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE ON R&D, BY SECTORS AND TYPES OF EXPENDITURES, 2020

Thousand kuna

    Gross domestic expenditure Capital
expenditures
Current expenditures
Total Labour costs Other
current costs
Sectors − total 4 723 461  540 415 4 183 046 3 041 297 1 141 749
Business enterprise sector 2 261 568  147 245 2 114 323 1 348 330  765 993
Government and private non-profit sector  941 940  112 967  828 973  662 292  166 681
Higher education  1 519 953  280 203 1 239 750 1 030 675  209 075

3. EXPENDITURE ON R&D IN BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SECTOR, TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL AND RESEARCHERS IN FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT BY ENTERPRISE SIZE, 2020

    Expenditure on R&D,
thousand kuna
Total R&D personnel Researchers
Business enterprise sector  ― total 2 261 568 5 764,4 2 244,7
do 9  51 250  185,8  86,3
10 – 49  201 213  711,4  288,6
50 – 249  620 266 1 907,1  903,6
250 – 499  61 305  170,9  84,3
500 i više 1 327 534 2 789,2  881,9

4. SOURCES OF FUNDS FOR R&D, 2020

Thousand kuna

    Total Internal funds Central and
local
government
Enterprises Higher education Private
non-profit institutions
Rest
of the world
Sectors – total 4 723 461 1 947 661 1 594 425  132 008  43 523  2 061 1 003 783
Percentage 100,0 41,2 33,8 2,8 0,9 0,0 21,3
Business enterprise sector 2 261 568 1 644 893  52 224  17 851   48   0  546 552
Percentage 100,0 72,7 2,3 0,8 0,0 0,0 24,2
Government and private non-profit sector  941 940  149 262  599 399  71 362  13 171  1 366  107 380
Percentage 100,0 15,8 63,6 7,6 1,4 0,1 11,4
Higher education  1 519 953  153 506  942 802  42 795  30 304   695  349 851
Percentage 100,0 10,1 62,0 2,8 2,0 0,0 23,0

G-1. SOURCES OF FUNDS FOR R&D, 2020

5. R&D PERSONNEL, BY TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT, SECTORS, OCCUPATION IN R&D AND SEX, 2020

    Total Researchers Expert associates Technicians Other supporting staff
All Women All Women All Women All Women All Women
Headcount                    
Total R&D personnel  25 217  12 553  16 027  7 852  4 673  2 056  2 248  1 058  2 269  1 587
Business enterprise sector  7 067  2 366  2 685   859  2 738   888  1 176   400   468   219
Government and private non-profit sector  4 826  2 870  3 039  1 725   842   524   460   290   485   331
Higher education  13 324  7 317  10 303  5 268  1 093   644   612   368  1 316  1 037
Persons working on employment contract basis  23 695  11 741  15 033  7 369  4 224  1 767  2 210  1 046  2 228  1 559
Business enterprise sector  6 902  2 320  2 619   846  2 654   857  1 166   400   463   217
Government and private non-profit sector  4 463  2 698  2 822  1 630   729   465   453   288   459   315
Higher education  12 330  6 723  9 592  4 893   841   445   591   358  1 306  1 027
Persons hired under contractual agreement or author’s contract  1 522   812   994   483   449   289   38   12   41   28
Business enterprise sector   165   46   66   13   84   31   10 -   5   2
Government and private non-profit sector   363   172   217   95   113   59   7   2   26   16
Higher education   994   594   711   375   252   199   21   10   10   10
Full-time equivalent (FTE)                    
Total R&D personnel 15 517,0 7 496,7 9 112,5 4 377,9 3 535,5 1 451,4 1 576,0  787,0 1 293,0  880,4
Business enterprise sector 5 764,4 2 007,2 2 244,7  739,2 2 346,5  786,8  860,1  340,1  313,1  141,1
Government and private non-profit sector 3 568,7 2 150,1 2 091,6 1 198,0  632,8  393,0  427,3  271,5  417,0  287,6
Higher education 6 183,9 3 339,4 4 776,2 2 440,7  556,2  271,6  288,6  175,4  562,9  451,7
Persons working on employment contract basis 14 939,0 7 199,8 8 721,6 4 191,9 3 386,2 1 359,7 1 560,2  780,9 1 271,0  867,3
Business enterprise sector 5 708,7 1 991,2 2 224,9  735,9 2 316,7  775,2  855,7  340,1  311,4  140,0
Government and private non-profit sector 3 395,5 2 060,6 1 976,4 1 139,7  593,5  371,4  424,5  269,5  401,1  280,0
Higher education 5 834,8 3 148,0 4 520,3 2 316,3  476,0  213,1  280,0  171,3  558,5  447,3
Persons hired under contractual agreement or author’s contract  578,0  296,9  390,9  186,0  149,3  91,7  15,8  6,1  22,0  13,1
Business enterprise sector  55,7  16,0  19,8  3,3  29,8  11,6  4,4 -  1,7  1,1
Government and private non-profit sector  173,2  89,5  115,2  58,3  39,3  21,6  2,8  2,0  15,9  7,6
Higher education  349,1  191,4  255,9  124,4  80,2  58,5  8,6  4,1  4,4  4,4

6. RESEARCHERS, BY TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT, SECTORS, EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND SEX, 2020

    Total Researchers by educational attainment
Doctoral or equivalent level Master’s or equivalent level Bachelor’s or equivalent level Short cycle tertiary education
All Women All Women All Women All Women All Women
Headcount                    
Researchers − total  16 027  7 852  9 838  4 977  5 510  2 653   640   218   39   4
Business enterprise sector  2 685   859   277   102  1 941   676   429   77   38   4
Government and private non-profit sector  3 039  1 725  2 342  1 271   485   313   211   141   1 -
Higher education  10 303  5 268  7 219  3 604  3 084  1 664 - - - -
Persons working on employment contract basis  15 033  7 369  9 217  4 685  5 140  2 462   640   218   36   4
Business enterprise sector  2 619   846   262   100  1 892   665   429   77   36   4
Government and private non-profit sector  2 822  1 630  2 149  1 183   462   306   211   141 - -
Higher education  9 592  4 893  6 806  3 402  2 786  1 491 - - - -
Persons hired under contractual agreement or author’s contract   994   483   621   292   370   191 - -   3 -
Business enterprise sector   66   13   15   2   49   11 - -   2 -
Government and private non-profit sector   217   95   193   88   23   7 - -   1 -
Higher education   711   375   413   202   298   173 - - - -
Full-time equivalent (FTE)                    
Researchers − total 9 112,5 4 377,9 5 022,9 2 574,7 3 456,2 1 602,3  600,3  196,9  33,1  4,0
Business enterprise sector 2 244,7  739,2  228,3  87,5 1 568,1  571,5  415,3  76,2  33,0  4,0
Government and private non-profit sector 2 091,6 1 198,0 1 642,5  909,7  264,0  167,6  185,0  120,7  0,1 -
Higher education 4 776,2 2 440,7 3 152,1 1 577,5 1 624,1  863,2 - - - -
Persons working on employment contract basis 8 721,6 4 191,9 4 777,8 2 461,5 3 311,5 1 529,5  600,3  196,9  32,0  4,0
Business enterprise sector 2 224,9  735,9  221,4  87,1 1 556,2  568,6  415,3  76,2  32,0  4,0
Government and private non-profit sector 1 976,4 1 139,7 1 535,7  855,6  255,7  163,4  185,0  120,7 - -
Higher education 4 520,3 2 316,3 3 020,7 1 518,8 1 499,6  797,5 - - - -
Persons hired under contractual agreement or author’s contract  390,9  186,0  245,1  113,2  144,7  72,8 - -  1,1 -
Business enterprise sector  19,8  3,3  6,9  0,4  11,9  2,9 - -  1,0 -
Government and private non-profit sector  115,2  58,3  106,8  54,1  8,3  4,2 - -  0,1 -
Higher education  255,9  124,4  131,4  58,7  124,5  65,7 - - - -

7. R&D PERFORMING UNITS, BY SECTORS AND FIELDS OF SCIENCE, 2020

    Total Business enterprise sector Government and private non-profit sector Higher education
Total                         445                         293                            60                            92
Natural sciences                            32                            10                            12                            10
Engineering                         239                         210                              1                            28
Biomedicine and health                             47                            18                            19                            10
Biotechnical sciences                            47                            36                              4                              7
Social sciences                            47                            12                            11                            24
Humanities                            23                              4                            12                              7
Artistic field                              4                              2  -                               2
Interdisciplinary fields of science                              6                              1                              1                              4

G-2. R&D PERSONNEL BY OCCUPATION IN R&D AND SEX, HEADCOUNT, 2020

G-3. RESEARCHERS BY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, HEADCOUNT, 2020

G-4. R&D PERFORMING UNIS BY SECTORS, 2020

G-5. R&D PERFORMING UNITS BY FIELDS OF SCIENCE, 2020

NOTES ON METHODOLOGY

Purpose of the survey

The purpose of the Research and Development survey is to monitor the R&D activity in the Republic of Croatia. The survey is conducted every year with the aim of collecting and publishing data on R&D personnel, expenditure and sources of funds for R&D, as well as the results of the R&D activity. The survey results enable the measurement of research and development activities in the Republic of Croatia and represent a part of the basis for adopting national policy on research and development activity and monitoring its implementation. They also represent official data on the research and development activity in the Republic of Croatia that are published in national and international publications and databases. In addition to continuous monitoring of research and development activities, the survey is important for the calculation of GDP.

The survey is conducted on the basis of the Official Statistics Act (NN, No. 25/20). The legal basis of the European Union for the implementation of the survey is Decision No. 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology and Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No. 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Decision No 1608/2003/EC.

Sources and methods of data collection

Data are the result of statistical processing of annual reports collected from legal units dealing with the R&D in the Republic of Croatia in the 2020 calendar year, from business sector on the Annual Report on R&D for Enterprises (IR-1 form), from government and private non-profit sector on the Annual Report on R&D for Government and Private Non-Profit Sector (IR-2 form) and from institutions of higher education on the Annual Report on R&D for Higher Education (IR-3 form). The forms were sent to the reporting units via electronic mail, along with general instructions and attachments required to fill out the forms. The reporting units returned the filled forms in the same way.

The reference period to which data on R&D personnel and expenditure refer is the entire 2020.

Pursuant to the Official Statistics Act (NN, No. 25/20), the confidentiality of all data provided by the reporting units in the form is guaranteed. The data collected are used solely for statistical purposes and are published in aggregated form.

Coverage and comparability

The statistical survey entitled Research and Development in 2020 covers legal units on the territory of the Republic of Croatia that are known or assumed to be engaged in the R&D activity. Due to the importance of research and development (R&D), which is seen as an initiator of economic growth and innovations, various data sources have been analysed in order to improve the survey coverage and to identify hitherto unknown legal units engaged in R&D. The following sources have been used: Register of Scientific Organisations of the Ministry of Science and Education, Survey on Innovation Activities in Croatian Enterprises (enterprises that indicated that they are engaged in R&D activities), Statistical Business Register of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics, previous Research and Development surveys and the project database within the Horizon 2020 programme for the Republic of Croatia for data on funds allocated by applicants (EU_CORDIS base), information on awarded grants to enterprises from the European Structural and Investment Funds, a list of scientific institutions of the Croatian Scientific Bibliography (CROSBI), a list of funded HAMAG-BICRO projects as well as a list of legal entities that have reported investments in R&D in the Annual Report on Gross Investment in Fixed Assets (INV-P form) for 2019. The analysis of the mentioned sources resulted in the basic list of 807 reporting units, to which a form was sent.

The completed form was submitted by 445 units, 287 units responeded that they were not engaged in the R&D activity and 75 units did not respond in any way. Data in this First Release present aggregate results for 445 units engaged in the R&D activity.

The 2020 data published in this First Release are comparable with data for the previous four years. Data for 2016 are not fully comparable with data from previous years due to the improvement of a number of statistical production processes and the interruption in time series.

Until 1996, the statistics on scientific research was compiled by means of the Annual Report for Legal Entities Engaged in Science and Research and Legal Entities Engaged in Research and Development (NIRO form), which covered all legal entities engaged in science and research as well as research units within enterprises and institutions, and all institutions of higher education that were recorded with the Register of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia in the referent year.

Since 1997, the sector approach has been introduced, based on the international methodology – The Frascati Manual 2002 – and aimed at the expansion of the business enterprise sector as the principal domain of research and development in the world. Data for the period from 1997 to 2003 were collected from business enterprises employing more than 100 persons, the 2004 data were collected from business enterprises employing more than 10 persons and, since 2005, enterprises with less than 10 employees as well as private non-profit sector have been covered. Since 2013, the private non-profit sector has been presented together with the government sector due to the small number of units.

Definitions and explanations

Definitions of the R&D field are based on the international methodology – the Frascati Manual 2015 (Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development, The Measurement of Scientific, Technological and Innovation Activities, publisher: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD, Paris, 2015).

Research and development (R&D) comprise systematic creative work aimed at increasing knowledge about man, culture and society and its application in practice. For an activity to be an R&D activity, it must satisfy five criteria. The activity must be novel, creative, uncertain, systematic and transferable and/or reproducible. There are three types of research and development: basic research, applied research and experimental development.

Basic research is a theoretical or experimental work, which mainly aims at attaining to new knowledge about basics of phenomena and facts with no practical application.

Applied research is a theoretical or experimental work, which mainly aims at attaining to new knowledge and which is primarily focused on achieving practical objectives.

Experimental development is a systematic work based on the results of scientific research and practical experience, aimed at creating new materials, products and systems as well as at introducing new or improving existing processes.

Business enterprise sector comprises enterprises and institutions the main activity of which is production of goods and services intended for market at commercial price. The business enterprise sector includes public enterprises, as well as non-profit institutions that are market producers of goods or services.

Government sector comprises all units of central and local government, including social security funds, except institutions of higher education, as well as all non-profit institutions that are controlled by government units, and that are not themselves part of the Higher education sector.

Private non-profit sector comprises non-market, non-profit institutions serving households (that is, the general public), except those mainly controlled and financed by government, their main characteristic being that they should not be the source of revenue or profit to the institutions controlling them.

Higher education includes all institutions providing formal tertiary education programmes, whatever their source of finance or legal status, and all research institutes and centres that have their R&D activities under the direct control of, or administered by, tertiary education institutions.

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is the total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during the reporting calendar year. GERD includes domestically performed R&D that is financed from abroad but excludes funding for R&D performed abroad. Intramural R&D expenditures are all current expenditures and gross fixed capital expenditures for R&D performed within reporting unit, irrespective of the source of funds.

Current expenditures comprise labour costs and other current costs used in R&D.

Labour costs include compensations of employees (wages and salaries and social contributions paid by an employer), vocational training costs and other labour costs.

Other current costs comprise material costs, costs of persons hired under contractual agreement of author’s contract, acquiring services to support intramural R&D and other costs (costs of indirect services).

Capital expenditures are the annual gross amount paid for the acquisition of fixed assets that are used repeatedly or continuously in the performance of R&D for more than one year. They comprise investing in land and buildings, machinery and equipment, computer software and patents, licences, studies and projects.

Total R&D personnel include all persons engaged directly in R&D, whether employed by the reporting unit or external contributors (persons hired under contractual agreement or author’s contract) fully integrated into the unit’s R&D activities, as well as those providing direct services for the R&D activities (such as R&D managers, administrators, technicians). According to the recommendations of the Frascati Manual 2015, persons who work less than 10% of full-time hours are not included.

Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge. They conduct research and improve or develop concepts, theories, models, techniques instrumentation, software or operational methods.

Technicians and equivalent staff are persons whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in one or more fields of engineering, the physical and life sciences, or the social sciences, humanities and the arts. They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods and the use of research equipment, normally under the supervision of researchers.

Expert associates are persons with higher education employed to perform expert jobs (librarians, IT professionals, information specialists, etc.), who participate in the scientific and research and R&D work, but are not the managers of R&D projects.

Other supporting staff are employees who perform all the activities that directly contribute to the R&D performance, which are not performed by researchers or technicians and expert associates. These activities include secretarial and other administrative tasks, the management of materials or equipment required for the R&D project implementation, supporting activities related to R&D such as planning, information and financial support, legal services, assistance in the assembly, adjustment, maintenance and repair of scientific equipment and instruments. Managerial and administrative staff who mainly deal with financial and personnel issues and general administration also perform the aforementioned activities if their activities are directly related to R&D projects.

Full-time equivalent (FTE) is expressed in person-years and presents time as a share of full working time in which persons in employment are engaged in the work related to R&D (for example, if a person was engaged in works related to R&D for six months in full working time, it is expressed as 0.5 full-time equivalent – 0.5 FTE).

 

Abbreviations  
   
EU European Union
GDP gross domestic product
HAMAG-BICRO Croatian Agency for SMEs, Innovations and Investments
NN Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
   
Symbols  
   
- no occurrence
0 value not zero but less than 0.05 of the unit of measure used

 

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